真美大観/平等院鳳凰堂寫眞

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鳳凰堂寫眞圖[編集]

鳳凰堂は、關白頼道が、永承六年(西暦一〇五一年)に、山城の國宇治川の左岸に、建築せしめたる、北向の一佛殿にして、藤原時代(西暦第十一世紀)建築物の好模範と稱せらる、其形は、鳳凰の下翔するに象れるなり、其體部に當る中殿は、正面三十四尺を三間に、側面二十六尺を二間に分ち、兩翼に當る中殿は、幅十三尺、長三十二尺餘左右に延び、十八尺前方に折れて、矩形を爲し、尾に象る殿後の歩廊は、幅十四尺、長三十六尺あり、兩翼端に、方十八尺の樓あり、其結構圖の上部に出せる二小圖の如くして、裝像を設く、此建物は瓦葺にして、屋角に銅製の鳳凰を置けり、柱、桁等の外部は、端塗にして、宛然、延暦時代(西暦第八世紀の終)の趣あり、内部の構造は、此圖に由りては知る能はざれど、中殿内部の高は二十六尺あり、折り上げ格天井にして、格像、支輪に至るまで、皆、極彩色の模樣を施せり、中央に金、銀、瑠璃、螺鈿を嵌入したる天蓋ありて、光彩燦然たり、其下の須彌壇、また、螺鈿を嵌し、羽目は金銅の薄板に、牡丹唐獅子を彫む、壇上には、佛工の巨擘定朝(西暦第十一世紀)が刻める、丈六尺の阿彌陀の坐像を安置す、其相好の端嚴殊勝なる、渇仰の念に堪えざらしむ、四周の壁面、及び扉の内面には、九品淨土の曼荼羅を描けり、畫者は繪所の長者宅磨爲成にして、能筆を以て稱せられたる藤原俊房、感無量壽經の文を其上に録せり、承塵上の壁間には五十有餘の菩薩の木造を貼附し、雲中供養の状を示せり、建設以來久しきを經たるが故に、裝飾に蟲蝕朽損多けれど、尚、觀る者をして、嘆賞措く能はざらしむ、惟ふに建立の當時に、此堂に詣れるものは、彌陀の淨土に往生せるが如き想を爲しヽならん、堂前の池を阿字池といふ、蓮花あり、夏時は紅白の花を開き其美觀言う可からず。

Hô-wô-dô (Phoenix Temple)[編集]

  • Of Byô-dô-in at Uji, Kyôto
  • The architect unknown
  • Collotype from a photograph.

Hō-wō-dō, a Buddhist temple which is situated on the left bank of the river Uji, near Kyoto, was built in the 6th year of Yei-shô (1051 A.D.) by Fuji-wara Yori-michi, the prime minister, and is highly valued as an excellent specimen of the architecture of the Fuji-wara Era (11th century). The form of the building is an imitation of a phoenix alighting on ground. The middle hall (the front dimensions, 33 ft. 6 in.; the depth, 25 ft 7 in.) is the body of the bird and covered ways on both sides (3 ft. 6 in long; 12ft. 9 in. wide) correspond to the spread wings. The end of the covered ways again are bent towards the front, the bent portion alone measuring 18 ft. in length. At the point of bending there is built a square gallery (17 ft. 9in. each ways) as the partial pictures here above the whole one show (the right showing is front and the left the rear). The corridor behind the hall, which imitates the tail of the phoenix, measures 13 ft. 9 in. in width and 35 ft. 9 in. in length.

The building is roofed with tiles and a pair of bronze phoenixes stand on the top of the roof. Pillars and beams are all painted in red just as in case of the buildings of the Yen-ryaku (8th century). The inside of the temple can not be seen from the collotype given here but we shall describe it in the shortest possible form. The inner measurement of the middle hall is 25 ft. 7 in. in height. The ceiling with a lattice-work is painted beautifully in colour. In the middle of the hall there stands a heavenly canopy shining brilliantly with the mosaic work of gold, silver, gems or pearls. Under it stands the Sumeru-alter which is also beautifully adorned, and on each of the metal boards in front is carved a lion by the piony flowers. On the alter sits the Buddha Amitâyus, 16 ft. high, which was sculptured by Jyō-chō, a great Buddhistic sculptor of the 11th century. On the walls and doors, the Mandala (circle) of the nine grades of the Pure Land of Bliss is painted by Taku-ma Tamenari, the head of the Picture Bureau, and it is accompanied with the text of the Amitâyui-dhyâna Sūtra nicely written by Fuji-wara Toshi-fusa who was noted for his skill in hand writing. Fifty or more images of Bodhi-sattvas are hung over the lintels (nageshi) of hall.

As the building is a relic of remote antiquity the ornaments are either spoilt or faded by age. Still the traces of a fine workmanship can well be seen; they must have been very beautiful when they were new. The pond before the temple is called 'A-ji-no-ike' (Akara pond) and is very attractive, when the lotus flower open, late in the summer time.


Byodo-in Uji01pbs2640.jpg

底本[編集]

  • 田島志一編 『真美大観 第一册』 日本佛教眞美協會、1899年。