Hô-wô-dô (Phoenix Temple)[編集]
- Of Byô-dô-in at Uji, Kyôto
- The architect unknown
- Collotype from a photograph.
Hō-wō-dō, a Buddhist temple which is situated on the left bank of the river Uji, near Kyoto, was built in the 6th year of Yei-shô (1051 A.D.) by Fuji-wara Yori-michi, the prime minister, and is highly valued as an excellent specimen of the architecture of the Fuji-wara Era (11th century). The form of the building is an imitation of a phoenix alighting on ground. The middle hall (the front dimensions, 33 ft. 6 in.; the depth, 25 ft 7 in.) is the body of the bird and covered ways on both sides (3 ft. 6 in long; 12ft. 9 in. wide) correspond to the spread wings. The end of the covered ways again are bent towards the front, the bent portion alone measuring 18 ft. in length. At the point of bending there is built a square gallery (17 ft. 9in. each ways) as the partial pictures here above the whole one show (the right showing is front and the left the rear). The corridor behind the hall, which imitates the tail of the phoenix, measures 13 ft. 9 in. in width and 35 ft. 9 in. in length.
The building is roofed with tiles and a pair of bronze phoenixes stand on the top of the roof. Pillars and beams are all painted in red just as in case of the buildings of the Yen-ryaku (8th century). The inside of the temple can not be seen from the collotype given here but we shall describe it in the shortest possible form. The inner measurement of the middle hall is 25 ft. 7 in. in height. The ceiling with a lattice-work is painted beautifully in colour. In the middle of the hall there stands a heavenly canopy shining brilliantly with the mosaic work of gold, silver, gems or pearls. Under it stands the Sumeru-alter which is also beautifully adorned, and on each of the metal boards in front is carved a lion by the piony flowers. On the alter sits the Buddha Amitâyus, 16 ft. high, which was sculptured by Jyō-chō, a great Buddhistic sculptor of the 11th century. On the walls and doors, the Mandala (circle) of the nine grades of the Pure Land of Bliss is painted by Taku-ma Tamenari, the head of the Picture Bureau, and it is accompanied with the text of the Amitâyui-dhyâna Sūtra nicely written by Fuji-wara Toshi-fusa who was noted for his skill in hand writing. Fifty or more images of Bodhi-sattvas are hung over the lintels (nageshi) of hall.
As the building is a relic of remote antiquity the ornaments are either spoilt or faded by age. Still the traces of a fine workmanship can well be seen; they must have been very beautiful when they were new. The pond before the temple is called 'A-ji-no-ike' (Akara pond) and is very attractive, when the lotus flower open, late in the summer time.
- 田島志一編 『真美大観 第一册』 日本佛教眞美協會、1899年。